Appearing in its present form about ce , the Mahabharata consists of a mass of mythological and didactic material arranged around a central heroic narrative that tells of the struggle for sovereignty between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas sons of Dhritarashtra, the descendant of Kuru and the Pandavas sons of Pandu. Although it is unlikely that any single person wrote the poem, its authorship is traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyasa , who appears in the work as the grandfather of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. The date and even the historical occurrence of the war that is the central event of the Mahabharata are much debated. The enmity and jealousy that develops between the cousins forces the Pandavas to leave the kingdom when their father dies. During their exile the five jointly marry Draupadi who is born out of a sacrificial fire and whom Arjuna wins by shooting an arrow through a row of targets and meet their cousin Krishna , who remains their friend and companion thereafter. Although the Pandavas return to the kingdom, they are again exiled to the forest, this time for 12 years, when Yudhishthira loses everything in a game of dice with Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas. The feud culminates in a series of great battles on the field of Kurukshetra north of Delhi, in Haryana state. All the Kauravas are annihilated , and, on the victorious side, only the five Pandava brothers and Krishna survive. One by one they fall on the way, and Yudhisthira alone reaches the gate of heaven. After further tests of his faithfulness and constancy, he is finally reunited with his brothers and Draupadi, as well as with his enemies, the Kauravas, to enjoy perpetual bliss.
Ramayana: History or Myth?
Present paper attempts to investigate the issue of interpolation in Valmiki Ramayana on the basis of historical evidences. Most of the scholars are of the opinion that at least two kandas books of Valmiki Ramayana ; namely, Balkanda and Uttarkanda , are not part of the original Valmiki Ramayana but have been annexed to the same at a later stage. In agreement with this argument, I have tried to critically examine the episode of banishment of Sita on historical basis.
Presently, Valmiki Ramayana has verses in seven books Kandas. Since the beginning, scholars doubted authenticity of the first and the last Kanda of the Ramayana i. Balkanda and Uttarakada.
This approach is parallel to archaeology where physical remains are analysed to arrive at historic dates and hence gives rise to a new branch of scientific dating.
Saroj Bala ji, first of all, my compliments on your hard work in establishing the historicity of our Itihaas. Archaeoastronomy is still a new field, and there will be many in the future who would be testing the available data points, the archaeoastronomical indicators in our scriptures. I would urge you to keep an open mind on the date. All research brings us forward, even the one that does not hit bulls-eye in the first try. It will be wrong to hitch one’s wagon to the first date that came along, before it had even been proof-checked by others.
I can understand your drive to find consensus, but we shouldn’t build a consensus on something this important on a false basis if it can be shown as false sometime in the future. Really appreciate the efforts taken to bring out the dates of epic events. I have a doubt regarding that. The planetary positions is not unique to a particular date and should get repeated after a specific span of time.
Birth date of Rama
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Hence dating Ramayana is easily said than done. There have been claims of references to astronomy in terms of finding references to chart the location of stars.
This article is part of a series of articles on the Date of major episodes from the Indian History. The primary source of information for the article is the talk organised by the Srijan Foundation at the Press Club of India. Ramayana has more than astronomy observations. And like we did previously, we can split them into two categories. Hanuman and party have found Sita. They came to Kishkindha and in a hurry everybody left for Lanka.
Everybody is walking towards Lanka in order to rescue Sita and during this time, Laxman is describing the various things and patterns in the sky. It is quite obvious that they are taking the help of various stars, to make sure that they are traveling in the right direction at night and so on. And he describes the pole star of Ramayana times. So he is describing the pole star of Ramayana times but you are experts now, you know now when the Brahmarashi was the pole.
Institute of Scientific Research says it’s possible to date events from Mahabharata, Ramayana
Based on the astronomical dating of the events described in the original ancient Valmiki Ramayana and using modern software to date the planetary positions, Pushkar Bhatnagar of the Indian Revenue Service has accurately dated the events in Ramayana. Dates of the historical events were mentioned in the texts by the ancient Indian authors via the method of astronomical dating where the planetary and stellar positions on the day night! This ensures that even after millenia one can get back to the actual date on which the event occurred, because when we have multiple events mentioned in a historical text with astronomical dating, its almost impossible to get more than one date for the collection of all these events!
At the same time astronomical dating also validates the event itself because for multiple events to be accurately specified a person had to be either present on those days to record the event, The other alternative being if the text is a myth, then the author has to take all the pain in this world to calculate the stellar and planetary positions for the events of the dates mentioned in his work, which is possible only by modern software.
Also, why on earth would a myth need real dates unless and until there is some conspiracy for the future! The method of astronomical dating has another scientific advantage.
Date: Early 19th century Rather than a history to be taken at face value, the Ramayana tells a tale that is both a religious allegory and an instructive guide to.
Composed around the the same time as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana is written in 24, couplets. It is essentially a story of love and banishment. The symbolism of the story has been interpreted a number of ways but is widely seen as a story of good overcoming evil, with dharma or duty. The Valmiki or Sanskrit Ramayana contains nearly 50, lines of verse. It is much longer than both the Iliad and the Odyssey. The narrative is broken up into seven books. There are numerous translations of the Ramayana available in English.
One popular, but extremely condensed, version — based on the Tamil of Kamban — is by R. Narayan Penguin Books ; in India, just as popular is the version, also in prose but longer, by C. Rajagopalachari Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Another easily available abridged version in verse is by William Buck.
Scientific Dating and Chronology of Mahabharat, History of India
The Mahabharata as an encyclopaedia of early Indian culture and history may be expected to shed light on the Sindhu-Sarasvati (SS), or Indus, Tradition.
It all depends on what answer you are prepared to receive, for the answer is complicated and mired in politics. There are essentially two kinds of answers: faith-based answer, or fact-based answer. For example, there is archaeological evidence of cities, now submerged under the sea, near the city now called Dwarka, in Gujarat. These are probably over 4, years old, dated to Harappan times.
This is an established fact. Faith-based answer will jump to the conclusion that this is the island-city of Dwarka whose destruction is described in the epic Mahabharata, the earliest available retelling of which is less than 2, years old. Fact-based answer will say, there is not enough evidence linking the two.
The scientific dating of the Ramayana and the vedas
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The scientific dating of the Ramayana and the vedas book. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. A scientific (astronomical) method of.
Jump to navigation. Shereen Ratnagar This question is not framed appropriately. Which story of the Ramayana? In any case, the epic is dated relatively late, and Ayodhya falls outside the Harappan occupied zone. Mayank Vahia Ramayana is the story of Lord Rama and the social crisis of his life regarding the word given by this father and the sacrifice a son makes for the same. It also involves issues regarding the responsibility of a wife to a husband, that of a brother to another brother and a whole host of other moral issues in a somewhat idealised environment.
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How far back in the past did the events described in the epics really take place? After a research stay at Benares Hindu University, he did original fieldwork for a doctorate on Hindu nationalism, which he obtained magna cum laude in He also published on the interface of religion and politics, correlative cosmologies, the dark side of Buddhism, the reinvention of Hinduism, technical points of Indian and Chinese philosophies, various language policy issues, Maoism, the renewed relevance of Confucius in conservatism, the increasing Asian stamp on integrating world civilization, direct democracy, the defence of threatened freedoms, and the Belgian question.
Regarding religion, he combines human sympathy with substantive skepticism. The dating of the Mahabharat and the Ramayan is a puzzle that refuses to yield a simple answer. Conferences after conferences have been held in India and abroad for historians to arrive at a consensus, which has remained elusive so far.
The Ramayana is an ancient Indian epic, composed some time in the 5th century BCE, about the exile and then return of Rama, prince of.
Have there been any attempts to archaeologically date these sites? The events depicted must have happened during or before the establishment of these sites. If they have been dated, then we can know with certainty ” at the very least ” how old Ramayana events are. The first temple sunk under the sea in Tsunami in BC Current temple at the site is the third one.
69. Are there connections between the Ramayana epic and the Indus Valley Civilization?
My purpose is served because the readers have taken the issue seriously and have referred to the original Epics. That is my purpose of writing this Blog, especially on Hinduism and Indian Philosophy. One issue which, for quite some time has escaped scrutiny was the dating of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Over the recent times Britishers (Church) and later Communists have systematically worked to subvert the truth of Bhartiya History.
It was originally written in Sanskrit in the tradition of the Vedas as an account of the lives of the gods. The poem tells a story of court intrigue, romance, and the struggle for good over evil. It is shorter than the Mahabharata Great Bharata dynasty , the other great epic poem of India. Some of the followers of the Ramayana date its origin to , b. While its exact origins are lost in Indian antiquity, the Ramayana is today attributed to the poet Valmiki.
Most scholars believe that it was written in the third century b. The Ramayana has been redacted several times, leading to several versions. These are divided into five, six, or seven books. The Ramayana contains 24, couplets. The verses are called sloka two-line verses, each of 16 syllables , in Sanskrit. They have a complex meter called anustup. The verses are grouped into individual chapters called sargas, which are grouped into books called kandas. The name kanda is taken from the internode stem of sugarcane.
It suggests that each phase of the story is connected to the next phase.
When did events of Ramayana and Mahabharata actually occur?
Contesting theories of Aryan invasion, the organisers of the exhibition said Aryans were indigenous and that the Mahabharata and Ramayana were historical texts. Aryans were originals of India. Bala added that they have sufficient evidence to prove that Ramayana and Mahabharata were historic and not mythological texts.
History of the Ramayana. The Ramayana has been performed throughout India and Southeast Asia for at least years. The earliest written text dates back to.
The epic, traditionally ascribed to the Maharishi Valmiki , narrates the life of Rama , the legendary Kosala Kingdom. It follows his fourteen-year exile to the forest by his father King Dasharatha , on request of his step-mother Kaikeyi , his travels across forests in India with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana , the kidnapping of his wife by Ravana , the great king of Lanka , resulting in a war with him and Ram’s eventual return to Ayodhya to be crowned king.
This is the culmination point of the epic. It is considered a sacred book, and is read by millions of people every year. There have been many attempts to unravel the epic’s historical growth and compositional layers; various recent scholars’ estimates for the earliest stage of the text range from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE,  with later stages extending up to the 3rd century CE. The Ramayana is one of the largest ancient epics in world literature.
It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal husband and the ideal king. The Ramayana was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and culture. Like Mahabharata , Ramayana presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory , interspersing philosophical and ethical elements.
There are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages, besides Buddhist, Sikh, and Jain adaptations. According to Indian tradition, the Ramayana itself, the epic belongs to the genre of Itihasa like Mahabharata.